Week 1 | Evidence-Based Practice


Content Outline

  • What is evidence-based Practice? 
    • 5 Steps for EBN practice
    • What makes good evidence?
    • Why do nurses need to EBP?
    • Barriers to nurses using EBP
    • Searching for Evidence Pyramid F. HowtoLocateE-Resources
  • Search for the Best Evidence to Answer the Question - Search Databases Efficiently for Research Journal Articles
    • MEDLINE
    • CINAHL/CINAHL Plus
  • Locating E-Journals
    • Open Access and Free Journal Sites
    • Search for Practice Guidelines
    • National Guideline Clearing house guideline.gov
  • Search for Evidence Summaries
    • DynaMed: Prevention
    • Nursing Reference Center
  • Use a Meta-Search Engine to Find Evidence Sites
    • TRIP Database
    • Systematic review vs. Meta-analysis
    • Cochrane Database of Systematic Review
    • Finding Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses in PubMed
    • Finding Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses in CINAHL
    • Navigating the Web beyond Basic Google to Find Evidence?
    • Google Advanced Search Features
    • Google Scholar
    • Must Evaluate Web Resources: Evaluation Strategies
    • Criteria for Evaluating Web Sites

    Week 2 | Skin Anatomy and Function


    Content Outline

    • Structure & function of the skin
      • Epidermis: Average thickness is .1 mm. The stratum spinosum and basale are
        the germinative layers and source of new cells.
        •  Five layers
          • Stratum corneum (hornylayer)
          • Stratum lucidum (clearlayer)
          • Stratum granulosum (granularlayer)
          • Stratum spinosum (prickle-celllayer)
          • Stratum basale (basallayer)
      • Basement Membrane Zone
        • Lamina lucida
        • Laminadensa
      • Dermis
        • Provides nutrient supply to the epidermis
        • Two layers
          • Papillary – the dermis is firmly attached to the epidermis through undulating rete ridges or pegs of the epidermis.
          • Reticular–dense network of collagen fibers
          • Dermal structures include: arteries, veins, capillaries, venules, lymph vessels, nerves, sweat and sebaceous glands, Meissner’s and Vater’s corpuscles, hair follicles.
        • Dermalproteins
          • Collage (typesI,V,VI) provides tensile strength
          • Elastin provides elasticity
      • Subcutis
        • The dermis merges into the subcutaneous layer anchored by connective 
          tissue strands.
        • Source of fat stores, mechanical cushion, and insulation.
      • Blood supply
        • Capillary pressures
        • Tissue vulnerability–skin vs. muscle and adipose tissue
      • Major Functions of Skin
        • Protection
        • Defense
        • Absorption
        • Secretion
        • Thermoregulation
        • Sensation
           
    • Environmental Skin Effects and Age Related Changes
      • Ultra-violet radiation exposure
      • Soaps
      • Factors affecting skin hydration
        • Medications
          • Steroids
          • Other - antimicrobials, antihistamines, tricyclic antidepressants, analgesics, oral contraceptives.
      • Fetal and young skin compared to adult and older skin
        • Connective tissue and cellular differences
        • Changes in skin layer thickness
        • Vulnerabilities associated with age (injury, absorption, separation of epidermal and dermal layers, dryness)