Week 6 | Pressure Injury Scope, Etiology and Staging (17171-SP)
- Pressure Injury Scope
- Scope of the problem
- Prevalence: Number of patients with at least one pressure injury who exist in a given population at a given point in time.
- Incidence: Number of patients who were initially injury free who develop a pressure injury within a particular time period in a defined population.
- Pressure Injury Etiology
- Pressure Injury: A localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction. A number of contributing or confounding factors are also associated with pressure injuries; then significance of these factors is yet to be elucidated.
- Pressure from devices.
- Mucosal pressure injuries: pressure injuries found on the mucous membrane with a history of a medical device in use at the location of the injury.
- Causative factor is pressure which is dependent upon:
- Intensity of pressure.
- Duration of pressure.
- Tissue tolerance: the condition or integrity of the skin and supporting structures that influences the skin's ability to redistribute pressure.
- Factors affecting tissue tolerance
- Nutritional debilitation
- advanced age
- Low blood pressure
- Elevated body temperature
- Pathophysiologic theories of pressure injury development
- Ischemia caused by occlusion of capillaries.
- Reperfusion injury.
- Impaired lymphatic function.
- Mechanical deformation of tissue cells.
- Common pressure injury locations
- Heel pressure injuries
- National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Staging System: used only classify pressure injuries based on the depth of tissue destruction.
- Deep Tissue Pressure Injury (DTPI)
- Stage 1
- Stage 2
- Stage 3
- Stage 4
- Practice classifying tissue damage.
Objectives for Learning Outcomes
At the end of this course work the learner will be able to:
- Discuss the significance of pressure injuries as a health care problem.
- Differentiate between prevalence and incidence of pressure injuries.
- Describe the etiology of a pressure injury.
- Define the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel's (NPUAP) classification system for staging pressure injuries.
Renee Anderson, MSN, RN, CWON
Certified Wound and Ostomy Care Nurse; Co‐Director, Wound Management Education Program, University of Washington School of Nursing , Seattle; Clinical Faculty, Biobehavioral Nursing & Health Systems University of Washington School of Nursing; President, Rainier Clinical Consultants, Inc., Seattle, WA