Week 6 | Pressure Injury Scope, Etiology and Staging (17171-SP)

Illustration showing the coccyx area of the human body.

Content Outline

  • Pressure Injury Scope 
    • Overview 
      • Significance       
      • Scope of the problem 
      • Prevalence: Number of patients with at least one pressure injury who exist in a given population at a given point in time. 
      • Incidence: Number of patients who were initially injury free who develop a pressure injury within a particular time period in a defined population. 
    • Pressure Injury Etiology
      • Pressure Injury: A localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction. A number of contributing or confounding factors are also associated with pressure injuries; then significance of these factors is yet  to be elucidated. 
      • Pressure from devices. 
      • Mucosal pressure injuries: pressure injuries found on the mucous membrane with a history of a medical device in use at the location of the injury. 
      • Causative factor is pressure which is dependent upon: 
        • Intensity of pressure. 
        • Duration of pressure. 
        • Tissue tolerance: the condition or integrity of the skin and supporting structures that influences the skin's ability to redistribute pressure.  
      • Factors affecting tissue tolerance 
        • Intrinsic 
          • Nutritional debilitation 
          • advanced age 
          • Low blood pressure 
          • Stress
          • Smoking 
          • Elevated body temperature 
        • Extrinsic 
          • Friction 
          • Shear 
          • Moisture
      • Pathophysiologic theories of pressure injury development 
        • Ischemia caused by occlusion of capillaries. 
        • Reperfusion injury. 
        • Impaired lymphatic function. 
        • Mechanical deformation of tissue cells.
      • Common pressure injury locations 
      • Heel pressure injuries
    • National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Staging System: used only classify pressure injuries based on the depth of tissue destruction.  
      • Deep Tissue Pressure Injury (DTPI) 
      • Stage 1 
      • Stage 2 
      • Stage 3
      • Stage 4
      • Unstagable 
    • Practice classifying tissue damage.

Objectives for Learning Outcomes

At the end of this course work the learner will be able to:

  1. Discuss the significance of pressure injuries as a health care problem. 
  2. Differentiate between prevalence and incidence of pressure injuries. 
  3. Describe the etiology of a pressure injury. 
  4. Define the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel's (NPUAP) classification system for staging pressure injuries.

Additional Information

Course summary

Renee Anderson, MSN, RN, CWON
Certified Wound and Ostomy Care Nurse; Co‐Director, Wound Management Education Program, University of Washington School of Nursing , Seattle; Clinical Faculty, Biobehavioral Nursing & Health Systems University of Washington School of Nursing; President, Rainier Clinical Consultants, Inc., Seattle, WA


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